Rabbi Joshua says, “The evil eye, the selfish impulse, and hatred for people take a person out of the world.” Pirke Avot 2:16
Rabbi Joshua gives us three things to avoid, all behaviors that take a person out of the community and isolate him or her from society. Being a part of a community is a major part of the teachings of Pirke Avot. In the language of this mishnah, being a part of the world means being a part of a community.
The words ‘evil eye’ might bring up associations with superstitions, sorcery and magical curses. On a less mystical level, I think of the ayin hara as an eye roll, a look of contempt, the wordless gesture denigrating the very essence of the person towards whom it is directed. It’s the snide comment and the sotto voce comment about someone at a meeting. The problem with such behavior is not only that it is disrespectful, but also that it does not open up a conversation that might lead to learning by all parties. Disagreeing respectfully means sharing your disagreement openly, creating room for a discussion, and perhaps coming to a resolution or compromise.
What I call the ‘selfish impulse’ is more often called the evil impulse or the evil inclination. But the yetzer hara is not as simple as an evil part of our nature to be searched out and destroyed from our being. It is also described as a necessary part of our human nature, our sexuality, our drive to earn a living. It is the part of us which seeks pleasure and comfort. So Rabbi Joshua’s caution is not to focus only on our selfish needs without taking the needs of others into account.
Finally, Rabbi Joshua adds a general term for hatred of people, which can also mean hatred of all of God’s creations (human and animal). I think of sin’at habriyot in terms of racist, sexist, homophobic, antisemitic, Islamophobic statements, in which a person expresses hatred towards large swaths of humanity.
Judaism is a rich tradition of ritual commandments, prayer, holiday celebrations, and life cycle events, but again and again, we see our classical rabbis summarize the essential point of all of our Jewish behaviors as encouraging us to be decent people. We see that here in Rabbi Joshua’s teaching. Don’t be derisive, selfish, or hateful. Be a contributing member of a loving, supportive society. In Hillel’s words, ”All the rest is commentary.”
Hebrew Words of the Month:
- yetzer – urge, inclination
- tov – good
- ra – evil
- briyot – creatures – human, animal, reptile, rodent, insect.
- motzi – take out