Divre Harav – November/2021

Foundations for a Thoughtful Judaism

Thousands of years after Abraham and Sarah set off on their Biblical journey, we, their descendants, are the inheritors of a Judaism which contains the four elements of Peoplehood, Practice, Faith, and Ethics. I want to invite you to spend time this year digging into this Judaism that we have inherited and chosen. I want to unpack the meaning of our rituals and practices, our sense of peoplehood, our faith, and our ethics.

Foundations for a Thoughtful Judaism is a curriculum designed by the Shalom Hartman Institute, a highly regarded institute of Jewish thought and education serving Israel and North America. The curriculum is pluralistic and rigorous and thoughtful. The goal is to engage you and provoke you to think seriously about the big questions at the heart of Jewish tradition. Foundations for a Thoughtful Judaism presents our customs in a way which will invite you to make considered choices for yourself.

Each lesson will be self-contained, so you can come in at any time and there is no commitment to participate in the entire series of classes. Dip your toe in and try it out. You can pick and choose from the topics that intrigue you. It’s a new year, a time to focus on new projects, invest in renewing yourself. Abraham and Sarah changed themselves and changed the world. I guarantee that when you immerse yourself in the richness of Jewish Peoplehood, Jewish Practice, Jewish Faith, and Jewish Ethics, you will change yourself and the way you think. You will live a richer life. And maybe you, too, will change the world, or at least your small piece of it.

Class dates and times

  • Sundays, 9:10 – 10:00 a.m. at Temple Emanuel (go down the school hallway to the second room from the end on the left side)
  • Thursday afternoons, 1:00 – 2:00 p.m. at Ahavas Israel (meeting room)
  • Thursday evenings, third Thursday of the month, 7:00 p.m. at Ahavas Israel (meeting room)

Class topics (subject to change)

There are Source packets for each of the topics. Please contact Rabbi Krishef if you would like to download the pdf file in advance.

Sundays, 9:10 – 10:00 a.m. at Temple Emanuel

November 7 UNDERSTANDING FAITH – Pathways to Faith

November 14 UNDERSTANDING FAITH – Faith, Trust, and Risk

November 21 UNDERSTANDING FAITH – Faith and Knowledge 

December 5 BELIEF AND ACTION –Understanding Mitzvah

December 12 BELIEF AND ACTION – Sincerity and Ritual

Thursday afternoons, 1:00 – 2:00 p.m. at Ahavas Israel

November 4 UNDERSTANDING JEWISH PEOPLEHOOD – Peoplehood in the Hierarchy of Values 

November 11 UNDERSTANDING JEWISH PEOPLEHOOD – Particularism and Universalism

November 18 UNDERSTANDING FAITH – Pathways to Faith

December 2 UNDERSTANDING FAITH – Faith, Trust, and Risk

December 9 UNDERSTANDING FAITH – Faith and Knowledge

December 16 BELIEF AND ACTION –Understanding Mitzvah

December 23 BELIEF AND ACTION – Sincerity and Ritual

December 30 BELIEF AND ACTION – Obligation and Autonomy

Thursday evenings, third Thursday of the month, 7:00 p.m. at Ahavas Israel

December 16 – UNDERSTANDING FAITH – Pathways to Faith

Hebrew Words of the Month:

  • Yahadut – Judaism
  • Mahshevet Yisrael – Jewish Studies
  • Emunah – Faith

Divre Harav – October/2021

Jewish Prayer 103 – Framing the Shema

Jewish prayer 101 and 102 covered the Shema (November, 2020) and the Amidah (March, 2021). You can find the articles on my blog, EmbodiedTorah.org or on AhavasIsraelGR.org by searching or scrolling down to the older articles.

Once you are comfortable with the words of the Shema (English or Hebrew), the next step is to enrich the Shema with some context by adding framing prayers. The frame places the Shema in the context of a daily prayer practice and forms a bridge between engaging with God and Torah through study (the Shema) and engaging with God directly through prayer (the Amidah).

Gratitude is central to a prayer practice. The quality of thankfulness doesn’t necessarily come naturally. It is something which needs to be practiced, day in and day out, to remind ourselves to be grateful. The morning and evening Shema provide two touchpoints in the rhythm of our day to practice gratitude. We are grateful for creation, we are grateful for God’s love, we are grateful for Torah and mitzvot, leading to tikkun (repair) and redemption, and we are grateful for peace and security. The outline of the entire Shema unit is as follows:

  • Blessing of creation – Yotzer or  (morning) or Ma’ariv Aravim  (evening).
  • Blessing of God’s love towards us – Ahavah rabah or Ahavat olam.
  • | Three paragraphs of the Shema:
  • | Shema/Ve’ahavta – Command of our love for God/Tefillin/Mezuzah.
  • | Vehaya im shamoa – Theodicy/Tefillin/Mezuzah.
  • | Vayomer – Tzitzit/Mitzvot
  • Blessing of Redemption – Ge’ulah.
  • Blessing of peace and protection – Hashkivanu.

As you build your own prayer practice, you might draw upon the words of the Siddur to offer some words of gratitude to focus your thoughts before the Shema and to reinforce the message of the Shema afterwards. Leading into the recitation of the Shema are two blessings. The first connects us with nature. The version preceding the morning Shema focuses on the light of the rising sun. The version before the evening Shema, as we watch the sun set, focuses on the darkness.

Praised are you, Adonai our God, King of the universe, creating light and fashioning darkness, ordaining the order of all creation. You illumine the world and its creatures with mercy; in Your goodness, day after day You renew Creation. …. The good light God created reflects God’s splendor; radiant lights surround God’s throne. … Praise shall be Yours, Adonai our God, for Your wondrous works, for the lights You have fashioned, the sun and the moon which reflect Your glory …. Praised are You, Adonai, Creator of lights.

Blessed are You, Adonai, our God, King of the Universe, who word brings on evening, who alternates the seasons, and arranges the stars… God creates day and night, rolling the light away from before darkness, and darkness from before light …. Blessed are You, Adonai, Who brings on evening.

The second blessing before the Shema  is based on the central idea of the Shema, the instruction “You shall love Adonai your God ….” The blessing just prior to this passage asserts that the loving relationship is mutual, that it is because of God’s love for us that God gave us Torah and mitzvot.

Deep is Your love for us, Adonai our God, boundless Your tender compassion … Praised are You, Adonai who loves God’s people Israel.

Following the Shema is a blessing connecting the mitzvot embedded in the Shema to redemption. In the morning there is no break between blessing God the Redeemer and engaging with God in prayer. In the evening, as the day is ending, there is an additional blessing for peace and protection.

Your teaching is true and enduring. Your words are established forever. Awesome and revered are they, eternally right; well ordered are they, always acceptable. They are sweet and pleasant and precious, good and beautiful and beloved …. Praised are You, Adonai, Redeemer of the people Israel.

Lie us down, Adonai our God, in peace; and raise us up again, our Ruler, in life …. Shield us; remove from us every enemy, pestilence, sword, famine, and sorrow …. Blessed are You, Adonai, who guards the people Israel forever.

Hebrew Words of the Month:

  • Yotzer Or – Creator of light
  • Ma’ariv Aravim – the One who makes the evening 
  • Ahavah Rabbah – A great love
  • Ge’ulah – Redemption
  • Shomer – Guardian

Divre Harav – Summer, 2021

The Talmud consists of 38 volumes of disputes. As such, it has much to teach us about how to engage in discussion and, even more important, how to disagree agreeably. What happens after a group reaches a non-unanimous decision? 

In one tragic model, Rabbi Eliezer was the sole voice in a decision that was decided against him. He took the disagreement personally and kept arguing long after the vote was over. The sages took his intransigence personally and excommunicated him. Rabbi Akiva tried to soften the blow, but Rabbi Eliezer was distraught. Tears and waves of anger, as described in the Talmud, threatened to destroy the world. His wife, Imma Shalom, wouldn’t let him say certain prayers lest his fury do more damage. She left him alone for a few moments, however, and his unsupervised prayer led to the death of her brother Rabban Gamliel, the leader of the Sages who had voted for his excommunication.

Ill feelings might not literally destroy the world, but when we are unwilling or unable to let go of anger and resentment when something doesn’t go our way, a disagreement can become a rift that seriously damages a community. The losing side needs to know when it is time to stop fighting and start adjusting to the new reality. The winning side should behave with sensitivity and not gloat over its victory, understanding that the other side had good reasons for their passionate arguments. 

The better model is that of Hillel and Shammai, who fundamentally disagreed about the nature of Jewish Law. Yet even though they disagreed about fundamentals of marriage and divorce in ways that might cast doubt on the validity of the children’s status, their respective students continued to marry each other’s children. The respect that each side had for the other’s position prevented the dispute from fracturing the Jewish people into two different religions.

Our United Jewish School model includes language in our governance documents that asks us to work towards consensus decision-making. Neither congregation can take action alone – significant decisions require a majority from each side. Virtually every decision we’ve made in the past 15 years has been consensus. But this is an unusual situation. More often, our decision making bodies do occasionally reach a point where a principled disagreement requires a vote. Organizations cannot allow an inability to reach consensus to paralyze them into inaction. At those times, we turn to the Talmudic model, reaching for “disagreement for the sake of heaven” in which both sides listen deeply to what the other is saying, discuss ideas rather than attack ad hominem, argue with reason rather than fear, and strive to reach for truth rather than for victory.

Hebrew Words of the Month:

  • Mahloket – disagreement
  • Vikuah – debate
  • Ta’anah – argument
  • Riv – dispute
  • Sikhsukh – feud

Divre Harav – May, 2021

When Ahavas Israel decided to purchase, build and move from Lafayette Street to Michigan Street over 50 years ago, it wasn’t a simple decision. The discussion was ongoing and contentious and the board was unable to make a decision. Moe Kleiman, z”l, used to tell the story about how the decision was made in the following way:

The board held its meetings in a room in the lower level of an old house that was at the center of the synagogue structure. The room had one door leading into the basement and small windows set high in one wall. During a board meeting, Moe arranged for someone to pull the fire alarm. Panic ensued as the board members realized if there was a fire in the house above them, there would be no way for them to get out. They voted to begin the process of building a new (and safer) synagogue on the Michigan Street property.

When an organization is experiencing a crisis, it is easy to embrace change. When there is no crisis, there is no immediate reason to change, and organizations tend to slip into stasis mode. Moe manufactured a crisis, which broke the stasis. However, the best, most vibrant, organizations with wise leadership know how to keep changing and evolving and growing even when there is no imminent crisis.

Congregation Ahavas Israel is not in crisis. We have a solid endowment and are reasonably financially stable, although our budget relies on large transfers from several of our accounts each year. We own our building and have turned the building into a source of income by renting it to a preschool, a church, and the Federation. But there are clouds on the horizon. Our building is aging. Roofs, heating and cooling systems, and security systems, are costly to replace, repair, and maintain. Renters can go out of business or decide to go elsewhere and new tenants are not easy to find. Synagogues and Temple (and religious institutions of all denominations) are experiencing precipitous drops in affiliation, on top of the slow decline of the past 20 years.

By embracing change now, we can avoid a crisis. And I believe in a partnership with Temple Emanuel. I trust that we can work together effectively, reduce the footprint of the two buildings, and renovate the Fulton Street property to create a shared facility. We have the opportunity to create a green building that will use our resources wisely. In the future, when major repairs are necessary, we will share the expenses rather than bear them alone. 

If we approve the plan to create a combined campus, we’ll be sending our children to a religious school that will be in our building, rather than in another congregation’s building. We’ll have the space for concurrent adult education during religious school in the same space as the children.

And finally, to emphasize – this proposal is not a merger. We would not be losing our governance structure and moving under the umbrella of Temple Emanuel. We would retain our board, our religious leadership and practices, and our finances. I believe that if we agree to engage with the collaboration and place our property for sale and join in a newly renovated, shared campus on Fulton Street, Congregation Ahavas Israel will be best positioned to continue to promote Conservative Judaism in Grand Rapids.

Divre Harav – April, 2021

We had a technological failure at Purim which got me thinking again about the role of technology in creating community. How many things need to work properly in order to create a community via Zoom or in order to be included in a community by watching a broadcast? The building needs to have power, the camera, sound system, and broadcast equipment needs to be turned on and working, the internal network needs to be active, the network of the company from which we buy internet needs to be working, the software of the video broadcast company and their network needs to be working, and your internet, equipment, and software needs to be working. And of course the entire system from one end to the other needs power. If any single piece fails, the broadcast fails.

It reminds me of the logic behind our approach to Shabbat. The minimal use of technology on Shabbat encourages us to turn to face-to-face community. In its most traditional form, when the community walks to shul, the only technology we rely on to gather a minyan on Shabbat is having sufficient heat and light in the building. Even adding the element of transportation to shul, we’re still relying on fewer points of failure than the broadcast.

Video-conferencing software like Zoom has been a blessing and a life-saver during this pandemic, allowing us to interact with each other virtually in ways that have begun to feel normal. However, periodically, the technology reminds us that virtual is not the same thing as actual. Even post-pandemic, we’ll continue to broadcast our service for people who cannot come in person. But as the Purim failure reminds us, if you are comfortable and able to come in person, you can bypass the technology when it fails by hopping in your car and driving to the synagogue. Within 15-20 minutes (or less for most people), you can be in the sanctuary plugged directly into the community without missing too much of the service.

***

As the vaccine becomes available more widely, I urge you to sign up for a vaccination. The Committee on Jewish Law and Standards has ruled that vaccinations are an obligation, to protect your health and potentially that of others around you as well. And I hope you will begin to be more comfortable returning to in-person services on Shabbat. We have had a consistent minyan since mid-October thanks to about 20 people coming either weekly or once or twice a month. We need your help during Pesah. The Sanctuary, however, is a large room and we need a few more people to fill it up with sound!

Hag Sameah!

Hebrew Words of the Month:

  • telephone selulari or nayad – cellphone or mobile phone
  • mahshev – computer
  • reshet – network